Marcus_Garvey_1924-08-05Born August 17, 1887 in St. Ann Bay, Jamaica.  Self-educated.

Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Jr.,  was a Jamaican political leader, publisher, journalist, entrepreneur, and orator who was a staunch proponent of the Black Nationalism. Garvey was unique in advancing a Pan-African philosophy to inspire a global mass movement and economic empowerment focusing on Africa known as Garveyism. Marcus Garvey electrifies a crowd at Liberty Hall in New York City as he states the goals and principles of the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA): “We represent peace, harmony, love, human sympathy, human rights and human justice…we are marshaling the four hundred million Negroes of the world to fight for the emancipation of the race and for the redemption of the country of our fathers.”

In Black History- the Black Codes of the South


Another form of Slavery



November 22, 1865 – The Mississippi legislature enacts “Black Codes” which
restrict the rights and freedom of movement of the
freedmen. The Black Codes enacted in Mississippi and
other Southern states virtually re-enslave the
freedmen.  In some states, any white person could
arrest any African American.


In other states, minor officials could arrest African American “vagrants” and “refractory and rebellious Negroes” and force them to
work on roads and levees without pay.  “Servants” in
South Carolina were required to work from sunrise to
sunset, to be quiet and orderly and go to bed at
“reasonable hours.”  It was a crime in Mississippi for
African Americans to own farm land. In South Carolina,
African Americans have to get a special license to
work outside the domestic and farm laborer categories.



Today in Black History – November 8th

*           Today in Black History – November 8             *

estherrolle1920 – Esther Rolle is born in Pompano Beach, Florida.  She
will become an actress, primarily on television.  She
will win an Emmy Award for her role in “Summer of My
German Soldier”. She will be best-known, however, for
her role as Florida, in the television sit-com, “Good
Times.”  Even though Ms. Rolle will play characters who
worked as maids, off-stage, she will be a tireless
crusader against black stereotypes in Hollywood.  She
will join the ancestors in 1998 at the age of 78.  Note:
At the time of her death, her manager will give her date
of birth as November 8, 1920, though some references
list the year as 1922.


1932 – The NAACP’s Spingarn Medal is awarded to Robert R. Moton,
president of Tuskegee Institute, for his “thoughtful
leaders hip in conservative opinion and action.”








1938 – Crystal Bird Fauset of Philadelphia, is elected to the
Pennsylvania House of Representatives. She is the first
African American woman elected to a state legislature.





minnieriperton1947 – Minnie Ripperton is born in Chicago, Illinois.  She will
study opera under Marion Jeffrey.  She will spend months
and months learning how to breathe and listening to and
holding vowels.  Eventually, she will begin singing
operas and operettas with a show tune every so often.
Despite her natural talent (a pure five to six octave
soprano) for opera, Minnie will be more attracted to
“Rock N Roll” and the promise of a touring career. She
will eventually discontinue her classical training to
follow her dream of becoming a famous songstress.  It
will, however, be her classical training which will
bring her recording success. She will be best known for
her recording of “Loving You.” She will join the
ancestors on July 12, 1979 at the age of 31 after
succumbing to breast cancer.

Alfre Woodard 58th Annual Primetime Emmy Awards - Arrivals Shrine Auditorium Los Angeles, California United States August 27, 2006 Photo by Steve Granitz/ To license this image (10084971), contact WireImage: U.S. +1-212-686-8900 / U.K. +44-207-868-8940 / Australia +61-2-8262-9222 / Germany +49-40-320-05521 / Japan: +81-3-5464-7020 +1 212-686-8901 (fax) (e-mail) (web site)

1952 – Alfre Woodard is born in Tulsa, Oklahoma.  She will
become an actress after her education at Boston
University, School of Fine Arts.  She will receive a
Golden Globe Award for Best Actress in a Television
Miniseries/Movie, an Emmy Award for Best Actress, as
well as ACE and Screen Actors Guild Awards for Best
Actress for her performance in the 1997 HBO original
movie, “Miss Evers’ Boys.”  Woodard’s many feature
film credits include “Star Trek: First Contact,”
“Heart and Souls,” “Primal Fear” opposite Richard Gere,
the ensemble film “How to Make An American Quilt,” Spike
Lee’s family drama, Crooklyn,” Dr. Maya Angelou’s “Down
in the Delta” starring Wesley Snipes, and “Passionfish,”
for which she will receive a 1998 Golden Globe
Nomination for Best Actress. In 1984, she will receive
an Academy Award nomination for her performance in
Martin Ritt’s “Cross Creek.”