1877 - Jackson College in Jackson, Mississippi is established. 1883 - The U.S. Supreme Court declares that The Civil Rights Act of 1875 is unconstitutional. The Civil Rights Act of 1875 stated that "All persons within the jurisdiction of the United States shall be entitled to the full and equal enjoyment of the accommodations, advantages, facilities, and privileges of inns, public conveyances on land or water, theaters, and other places of public amusement; subject only to the conditions and limitations established by law and applicable alike to citizens of every race and color, regardless of any previous condition of servitude." 1890 - Savannah State College in Savannah, Georgia is established. 1890 - The Alabama Penny Savings Bank is founded in Birmingham, Alabama by Reverend William Reuben Pettiford with $2,000 in capital. Although, so strapped for funds in its initial months that its officers will not draw salaries, the bank will prosper so well that during the panic of 1893, it will remain open when larger, white banks in Birmingham fail. 1917 - The first significant group of African American officers is commissioned by the U.S. Army. 1949 - William Hastie is nominated for the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals. He will be the first African American to sit on the court. 1953 - Toriano Adaryll Jackson is born in Gary, Indiana. He will become a singer and member of The Jackson Five known as Tito. 1957 - The Sickle Cell Disease Research Foundation opens in Los Angeles, California. It is the forerunner to a national association and over 50 local chapters dedicated to providing education, screening, counseling, and research in the genetic disease that affects over 50,000 individuals, mostly African Americans. 1964 - Bob Hayes wins a gold medal for the 100-meter dash in the 1964 Olympic Games in Tokyo with a time of ten seconds, equaling the world record. 1968 - Wyomia Tyus becomes the first person to win a gold medal in the 100-meter race in consecutive Olympic games. 1969 - Abdi Rashid Ali Shermarke, President of Somalia, is assassinated. 1974 - The National Guard is mobilized to restore order in the Boston school busing crisis. 1989 - South African officials release eight prominent political prisoners, including Walter Sisulu, a leader of the African National Congress. 1991 - Judge Clarence Thomas is confirmed as the 106th associate justice of the United States Supreme Court, despite sexual harassment allegations by Anita Hill, with a Senate vote of 52-48. He becomes the second African American to sit on the Supreme Court. 1993 - African National Congress leader Nelson Mandela and South African President F.W. de Klerk are awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for their work to end apartheid and laying the foundations for a democratic South Africa. 1994 - Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide returns to his country, three years after being overthrown by army rulers. The U.N. Security Council welcomes Aristide's return by voting to lift stifling trade sanctions imposed against Haiti. 2005 - The Million More Movement convenes on the National Mall in Washington, DC. In addition to celebrating the 10th anniversary of the Million Man March, there is a call for an end to the war in Iraq, and pointed criticism of the federal response to Hurricane Katrina.