Today in Black History – October 15

1877 - Jackson College in Jackson, Mississippi is established.

1883 - The U.S. Supreme Court declares that The Civil Rights Act
	of 1875 is unconstitutional. The Civil Rights Act of 
	1875 stated that "All persons within the jurisdiction of
	the United States shall be entitled to the full and 
	equal enjoyment of the accommodations, advantages, 
	facilities, and privileges of inns, public conveyances
	on land or water, theaters, and other places of public 
	amusement; subject only to the conditions and 
	limitations established by law and applicable alike to 
	citizens of every race and color, regardless of any 
	previous condition of servitude."

1890 - Savannah State College in Savannah, Georgia is 
	established.

1890 - The Alabama Penny Savings Bank is founded in Birmingham,
	Alabama by Reverend William Reuben Pettiford with $2,000 
	in capital. Although, so strapped for funds in its initial 
	months that its officers will not draw salaries, the bank 
	will prosper so well that during the panic of 1893, it will 
	remain open when larger, white banks in Birmingham fail.  

1917 - The first significant group of African American officers 
	is commissioned by the U.S. Army.

1949 - William Hastie is nominated for the U.S. Circuit Court 
	of Appeals. He will be the first African American to 
	sit on the court.

1953 - Toriano Adaryll Jackson is born in Gary, Indiana.  He 
	will become a singer and member of The Jackson Five 
	known as Tito.

1957 - The Sickle Cell Disease Research Foundation opens in Los
	Angeles, California. It is the forerunner to a national
	association and over 50 local chapters dedicated to 
	providing education, screening, counseling, and research
	in the genetic disease that affects over 50,000 
	individuals, mostly African Americans.

1964 - Bob Hayes wins a gold medal for the 100-meter dash in the
	1964 Olympic Games in Tokyo with a time of ten seconds, 
	equaling the world record. 

1968 - Wyomia Tyus becomes the first person to win a gold medal 
	in the 100-meter race in consecutive Olympic games. 

1969 - Abdi Rashid Ali Shermarke, President of Somalia, is 
	assassinated.

1974 - The National Guard is mobilized to restore order in the 
	Boston school busing crisis.

1989 - South African officials release eight prominent political 
	prisoners, including Walter Sisulu, a leader of the 
	African National Congress. 

1991 - Judge Clarence Thomas is confirmed as the 106th associate
	justice of the United States Supreme Court, despite 
	sexual harassment allegations by Anita Hill, with a 
	Senate vote of 52-48.  He becomes the second African 
	American to sit on the Supreme Court.

1993 - African National Congress leader Nelson Mandela and South
	African President F.W. de Klerk are awarded the Nobel 
	Peace Prize for their work to end apartheid and laying 
	the foundations for a democratic South Africa.

1994 - Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide returns to his 
	country, three years after being overthrown by army 
	rulers. The U.N. Security Council welcomes Aristide's 
	return by voting to lift stifling trade sanctions 
	imposed against Haiti. 

2005 - The Million More Movement convenes on the National Mall 
	in Washington, DC.  In addition to celebrating the 10th
	anniversary of the Million Man March, there is a call 
	for an end to the war in Iraq, and pointed criticism of
	the federal response to Hurricane Katrina.

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